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Bruce Ingraham is the owner of Judd’s Jewelers. He purchased Judd’s Jewelers over 33 years ago. Judd's Jewelers is located at 1714 Canal St., Merced, CA. Judd’s Jewelers carries a full line of silver, platinum and gold jewelry from necklaces to rings to bracelets, you can cross off everything on your jewelry list at Judd's Jewelers.


Bruce is a passionate craftsman of jewelry, precious stones, metal workers design, construct, adjust, repair, appraise and sell jewelry.


He has taught lapidary and metal casting at Merced High School. Stop by and visit Bruce at 1714 Canal St., downtown Merced.

Bruce Ingraham/Owner

59 Percent of Teachers Take on Additional Paid Work to Supplement Their Pay

A new report by EPI Economist Emma García and Research Associate Elaine Weiss adds to a growing body of research on the financial hardships faced by teachers. The authors find a connection between poor compensation for educators and the national teacher shortage, which forces many to supplement their pay through moonlighting and other strategies.


In the 2015–2016 school year, 59.0 percent of teachers took on additional work either in the school system or outside of it—up from 55.6 percent in the 2011–2012 school year. 44.1 percent of teachers took on second jobs within the school system, such as coaching, student activity sponsorships, mentoring other teachers, or teaching evening classes. 18.2 percent worked outside of the school system, and 5.7 percent received compensation based on student performance. For these teachers, moonlighting made up a substantial 7.0 percent share of their total income.


Importantly, financial stress is greater for teachers in high-poverty schools. In 2015-16, teachers in high-poverty schools were paid significantly less than those in low-poverty schools ($53,300 vs. $58,900) and earned a slightly smaller amount from moonlighting ($4,000 vs. $4,300), and the moonlighting that they did was less likely to involve paid extracurricular or additional activities for the school system, which can help them grow professionally as teachers.


“It’s an appalling reality that many of the professionals whom we entrust with the critical job of teaching our children are under such financial stress that they work a second or third job to supplement their paycheck,” said Weiss. “And the pay penalties are worse in high-poverty schools, where we must provide extra supports and funding, not only to support students directly, but to reduce the teacher shortage.”


The data suggest that fewer people are willing to choose a profession that puts them at a financial disadvantage. Recently, EPI researchers found that after accounting for education, experience, and other factors known to affect earnings, teachers’ weekly wages in 2018 were 21.4 percent lower than their non teaching peers. García and Weiss compare the salaries of teachers who remained in the profession to those who left. For those who quit teaching, the average salary was smaller than for those who stayed, suggesting that pay is a contributor to teacher attrition and the teacher shortage. The existing shortage of teachers harms students, teachers, and the public education system as a whole—and low relative pay and school poverty are clearly implicated as factors behind the teacher shortage.


“Policymakers need to think holistically about how to remove the obstacles that keep people from pursuing careers in teaching, and act now in ways that support teachers economically, at their workplaces, and enhance the prestige and professionalism of teaching,” said García. “Only through a concerted effort will we solve this growing crisis.”


This is the third report in the series on the teacher shortage. The first report established that current national estimates of the teacher shortage likely understate the magnitude of the problem. When aspects such as teacher qualifications associated with excellence and the unequal distribution of highly credentialed teachers across high- and low-poverty schools are taken into consideration, the teacher shortages are much more severe than previously recognized. The second report found that U.S. schools struggle to staff themselves due to the high rates of voluntary turnover and attrition and a decreasing interest in teaching careers.

The Class of 2019 is Graduating into an improving Economy, But Young College Graduates—Especially Women and People of Color—Still face significant challenges

 By Elise Gould, Zane Mokhiber, and Julia Wolfe, News from EPI


In the Class of 2019: College edition, EPI Senior Economist Elise Gould and Research Assistants Julia Wolfe and Zane Mokhiber provide in-depth analysis of the labor market for young college graduates, ages 21–24—examining their demographics, wages, and employment prospects as they begin their careers. Members of the college Class of 2019 currently have better job prospects than the classes who graduated into the immediate aftermath of the recession. However, compared with those who graduated into the 2000 labor market, the Class of 2019 still faces economic challenges including high levels of underemployment, worsened wage gaps for women and black workers, and the rising cost of college and resulting debt.


“While by many measures the labor market for young graduates is almost back to where it was before the recession, the economy of 2007 is a low bar,” said Gould. “We should be looking to the late 1990s and 2000 for comparison, in which an extended period of labor market strength translated into better opportunities for workers across the board.”


While the unemployment rate for white graduates has essentially recovered to its 2000 level, unemployment rates for other racial/ethnic groups remain well above their 2000 levels, and the gaps between the white unemployment rate and the black, Hispanic, and AAPI unemployment rates for young graduates are significantly larger than they were in 2000. Wages for young college graduates have been growing steadily since 2014, but are just above where they were in 2000—representing two decades of lost wage growth for young graduates.


“Yes, the labor market is improving for young college graduates, but it is improving unevenly,” said Wolfe. “Young people of color are graduating into a much different post-college labor market than young white workers. Women and black workers face wage gaps right out of college.”

Young women and black college graduates face large and growing pay penalties in the labor market relative to young men and white graduates, respectively. The gender wage gap for young college graduates has grown to 12.9 percent, and young black college graduates are paid 12.2 percent less than their white counterparts—evidence that workers cannot simply educate themselves out of gender and racial pay gaps.

The authors find that young women are more likely than men to have a college degree—women make up half of 21- to 24-year-olds but 57.4 percent of young college degree holders. Meanwhile, white and Asian American/Pacific Islander young adults are more likely than black and Hispanic young adults to hold a college degree.


Importantly, fewer than one-fifth of adults ages 21–24 are college graduates. While many Americans go on to increase their educational attainment throughout their 20s and 30s, most do not wind up completing a four-year college degree. Outcomes for recent high school graduates will be the subject of a forthcoming report, Class of 2019: High School Edition.


“Any policies we undertake to improve job prospects for young workers must also help the vast majority of workers without a college degree,” said Mokhiber. “Looking at the labor market for college graduates alone does not paint a full picture.”


The recent wage growth for college graduates does not make up for decades of wage stagnation, nor for the rising cost of college and resulting debt. Between the 1978–1979 school year and the 2017–2018 school year, the inflation-adjusted cost of a four-year education, including tuition, fees, and room and board, increased 173.0 percent for private school and 160.0 percent for public school, while median family income increased just 22.7 percent. As a result, an increasing share of students must take on substantial debt to access the benefits of a college education. Between 2004 and 2014, the number of student loan borrowers increased by 92 percent, and average debt per borrower increased by 39 percent in real terms.


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